The Malian city of Timbuktu is one of the world's oldest seats of learning and has an intellectual legacy of hundreds of thousands of manuscripts, coming from three great West African desert empires. These manuscripts offer a unique window into their history. This lecture will look at how their study can be used to advance our knowledge of the intellectual history of the premodern world.
Doctors’ careers can be built on publication rates and citations. Medical journals prefer positive results. It is not surprising that scientific fraud occurs, sometimes causing catastrophic damage to innocent patients and others. what can be done?